March 30, 1953 – This Day During The Korean War – Battle for Outpost Vegas

March 30, 1953 – The Battle for Outpost Vegas was a battle during the Korean War between the armed forces of the United States and China from March 26–28, 1953, four months before the end of the Korean War. Vegas was one of three outposts called the Nevada Cities north of the Main Line of Resistance (MLR), the United Nations defensive line which stretched roughly around the latitude 38th Parallel. Vegas, and the outposts it supported, Reno and Carson, were manned by elements of the 1st Marine Division. On March 26, 1953 the Chinese army launched an attack on the Nevada Cities, including Vegas, in an attempt to better the position of China and North Korea in the Panmunjon peace talks which were occurring at the time, and to gain more territory for North Korea when its borders would be solidified. The battle raged for five days until Chinese forces halted their advance after capturing one outpost north of the MLR on March 28, but were repelled from Vegas. The battle for outpost Vegas and the surrounding outposts are considered the bloodiest fighting to date in western Korea during the Korean War. It is estimated that there were over 1,000 American casualties and twice that number of Chinese during the Battle for Outpost Vegas. The battle is also known for the involvement of Sergeant Reckless, a horse in a USMC recoilless rifle platoon who transported ammunition and the wounded during the U.S. defense of outpost Vegas.
Until the end of March, the Chinese had shown no sign of attacking the Nevada Cities outposts. The Chinese were reluctant to engage the U.S. Marines’ patrols unless they engaged in their own positions. Meid and Yingling wrote that the Marines were as follows: “Operation orders read that the Marines were to make contact, capture prisoners, and deny the ground to the enemy.”
The Chinese offensive began on the night of March 26 against outposts Vegas, Carson, and Reno, in conjunction with attacking nearby outposts Dagmar, Esther, Bunker, and Rudy (Kudy?). At 19:00, small arms and machine gun fire erupted from the Chinese positions on the 1st Battalion, 5th Marines positions. This was followed by 15 minutes of mortar and artillery fire on the 5th Marines rear areas and supply routes along the MLR. At 19:10, over 3,500 Chinese soldiers from the 358th Regiment, 120th Division, 46th PVA attacked ouposts Carson, Reno, and Vegas. One of the Chinese companies engaged the Marines atop outpost Vegas. Marine artillery responded to the Chinese attacks by firing “protective boxes” and VT proximity fuses around the outposts and routes of attack. When VT was fired at Chinese soldiers who were very close to the Marine positions – as was often the case – the Marines would run into previously dug caves on the opposite slope of the hills. There they would wait until the overwhelming numbers of Chinese soldiers were pushed off the hill by the VT shells, and then the Marines would reemerge from the caves to man the defenses. Overwhelming Chinese numbers and supporting fire forced the Marines on Vegas to abandon the outer ring of less easily defended trenches.
At the same time during the evening of the 26th, Marine tanks and artillery had been positioned on the MLR to support an infantry raid to destroy Chinese bunkers scheduled for the next morning on the 27th, designated “Operation Clambake.” It was pure chance that they were positioned there just as the Chinese launched an attack in the same front.
By 19:40, communications wire between Vegas and 1st Battalion Command Post had been lost because of the Chinese artillery and mortars striking in the rear areas of the Marine positions. Occasionally Marine engineers would repair the wires until the next barrage destroyed them again. By 19:50, more than 100 Chinese soldiers occupied the lower trenches of outpost Vegas, where they could survive Marine artillery bombardments. 10 minutes later, the Marines at outpost Vegas withdrew in face of overwhelming numbers of Chinese soldiers. A little over an hour later at 21:29 a Marine platoon was sent to Vegas to support the Marines who had just withdrawn. Yet even before they were able to get to the outpost’s hill, they were pinned down from engulfing fire from nearby Chinese soldiers. Three minutes before midnight, 1st Battalion lost communications permanently with the Marines near outpost Vegas. All of the Marines on Vegas were killed or captured.
After 5 hours of fierce combat, the Chinese attack had been partially successful. They had captured 2 outposts (Vegas and Reno) and Marine reinforcements to those outposts had been thwarted. Carson was still controlled by the Marines. Shortly after midnight, F Company 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines made an effort to recapture Vegas, but the lead platoon only managed to get close enough to confirm that Vegas was in enemy hands. By 03:00 on 27 March, these units had retreated back to the MLR. Wounded Marines were either carried to the aid stations of the 1st or 3rd Battalion, 5th Marines, or in severe cases, evacuated by helicopter to Navy ships in Inchon harbor to the west of outpost Vegas. After eight hours of fighting in and around the Nevada Cities, the Chinese had endured an estimated 600 casualties, 4 times more than that of the Marines.
After the Marines abandoned their initial attempts to fight their way to Vegas, Major General Edwin A. Pollock commander of the 1st Division sent observation planes to direct fire for ground artillery and Air Force and Marine planes. Their fire was directed at Chinese artillery behind their front lines and at Chinese fortifications atop of captured outposts Reno and Vegas. On March 27 over 60 fire missions were called against Chinese targets. Marine mortars, artillery, and self-propelled guns contributed to the bombardment. Over 2 dozen Air Force and Marine aircraft also flew missions against Chinese positions on the captured outposts, including Grumman F9F Panther jets.
Instead of attacking both Reno and Vegas outposts, Pollock ordered attacks to be concentrated just on Vegas. This decision was made at 9 am as the bombardment climaxed against Chinese positions on both outposts. Company D, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines was the first to assault Vegas, but they never reached their objective, and retreated with only 9 able-bodied soldiers remaining.
At the same time, D company was pinned down while en route to Vegas. By 13:05, D company had reached the lower slopes of outpost Vegas. By 13:22, the Marines had “gone over the top” on the outpost’s hill. E Company soon followed and passed through D Company’s ranks to secure the trenches and crest of Vegas. At 18:00, F Company was still 400-yard (370 m) behind the other companies from outpost Vegas. After 10 hours of intense fighting on the 27th of March, the Marines had held the lower slopes of Outpost Vegas, Chinese soldiers held the opposite slope of outpost Vegas but no-one held the summit.
For two days from the end of March 29 to the end of March 30, Chinese formations continued to attack and counterattack in an effort to take back Vegas. According to Akermann, the Chinese “went through 4,000 men” in two regiments. The attacks eventually halted on March 30 because the Chinese simply could not afford to lose any more soldiers. By 11 am on March 30, as Marine artillery attacked Chinese positions, Chinese attacks finally stopped. The battle for Outpost Vegas was over.
On April 4, the 1st Marine Division was replaced by the Turkish Brigade, and the Marines went into reserve after almost a week of heavy fighting in and around the “Nevada Cities” outposts.
According to the 1st Marine Division diaries, American casualties in the month of March were at 141 killed in action, 29 died of wounded, 701 wounded and evacuated, 510 wounded and not evacuated, and 104 missing in action. Chinese forces suffered 1,351 killed in action, 3,631 wounded, and 4 captured. The Korean Marines had a minor presence during the battle for outpost Vegas, their casualties 26 killed in action, 97 wounded in action, and 5 missing in action.
According to Akermann, the 1st Marine Division had 1,488 killed, wounded, or missing in the month of March. In the “Nevada Cities” sector, the 1st Marine Division had 1,015 casualties (killed, missing, wounded), which was nearly 70% of their total strength. 156 Marines were killed, 441 wounded and evacuated, 360 wounded but not evacuated, and 98 missing including 19 captured. These casualties were from Marines in action; non-combatant casualties are not included.
Sergeant Reckless – A young Marine purchased a horse for $250 in October 1952 during the Korean War. The horse was trained as an ammunition carrier for a Recoilless Rifle platoon in the 5th Marines. Sergeant Reckless, as she was later called after the nature of the recoilless rifle and the platoon’s radio call sign, went with the 5th Marines as they were put in support of a string of outposts on the MLR. It was there where she had her first taste of battle.
Reckless had been moving about the Nevada Cities when the Chinese attacked on March 26, 1953. When artillery began to hit Outposts Vegas and the support network behind it on the MLR, Reckless ran to the nearest bunker, where she remained clearly shocked by the impact of war. The next morning on the 26th, as the 5th Marines recovered from the previous day’s fighting, Reckless was readied for her duties as ammunition carrier.
Before dawn Reckless was fitted with 8 recoilless rifle projectiles, 192 pounds of weight distributed across her back. Reckless was then led by the other Marines in her platoon to the platoon’s firing positions opposite of the southern slopes of outpost Vegas. She continued to haul ammunition, and at one point wounded Marines, up and down the hill.

U.S. Marine in a trench atop Outpost Vegas.

Reckless under fire in Korea

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