November 13, 1940 – The Battle of Pindus was the last stand of the Italian forces in Italian East Africa during the Second World War. The battle took place in November 1941, during the East African Campaign. The Italian garrison of 40,000 was commanded by Generale Guglielmo Nasi. After the defeat of the Italian forces at Keren on 1 April 1941, many of the remaining Italians withdrew to three strongholds: Amba Alagi, Jimma, and Gondar. Amba Alagi fell in May and Jimma fell in July. On 13 November, a mixed force from the British 12th (African) Division under Major-General Charles Fowkes—supported by Ethiopian irregular troops—attacked the key defensive position of Kulkaber and were repelled. However, a renewed attack a week later on Kulkaber was successful. There were two mountain passes that overlooked the town which were controlled by the Italian troops. They were invested by the two brigades of the British 12th (African) Division and the two Italian groups in the passes were cut off and were forced to surrender when their supplies ran out. Once the Allied troops had taken the passes, they gained control of the heights overlooking the town, and the Italian garrison under Generale Nasi in the town itself was attacked on 27 November and surrendered after the Kenya Armoured Car Regiment had penetrated the outskirts of the town.