April 30, 1975 – The 1975 Spring Offensive was a series of increasingly large-scale and ambitious offensive operations by the North Vietnam and the Viet Cong that began on 13 December 1974. The eventual goal of these operations was to defeat the armed forces and force the surrender of the government of the South Vietnam. After the initial success of what was to be a limited campaign in Phuoc Long Province, the North Vietnamese leadership increased the scope of the People’s Army of Vietnam’s offensive and quickly threatened the Central Highlands city of Buôn Ma Thuột. The new offensive was different from the ill-fated Easter Offensive of 1972. The subsequent resignation of U.S. President Richard Nixon following the fallout of the Watergate scandal meant that the diplomatic promises of the disgraced former president would not be honored by the United States Congress. Decreases in American military aid, which had become the lifeblood of South Vietnam’s armed forces, created material and psychological turmoil in an army steeped in the American way of war. Inability to cope with the situation and find alternative military methodologies contributed heavily to the rapidity of South Vietnam’s collapse. The gradual impact of this perceived American abandonment of South Vietnam on the psyche of that nation’s political and military leadership and civilian population was devastating. The South Vietnamese government, alarmed at the speed and ease with which the North Vietnamese offensive was proceeding, attempted to regroup its forces by truncating the area that its troops had to defend, thereby surrendering space for time. This attempt, however, provoked the civilian population in the affected areas to take to the roads, making coherent military movements virtually impossible. This situation was exacerbated by confusing orders, lack of command and control, and a well-led and aggressive enemy, which led to the fall of Buôn Ma Thuột and the destruction of the bulk of an entire Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) corps in the Central Highlands. A similar attempt to reduce defended areas in the northern provinces (this time to coastal enclaves) and to create a strategic national reserve met a similar fate, as command confusion, massive refugee migrations, and, in the end, total anarchy prevented any coherent defense and led to the utter collapse of ARVN’s forces and the loss of the northern two-thirds of the country. Surprised by the rapidity of the South Vietnamese collapse, the objective of the campaign then became the transfer of the bulk of its northern forces more than 350 miles to the south in order to capture the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon in time for celebrate their late President Ho Chi Minh’s birthday and end the war. South Vietnamese forces regrouped around the capital and managed to conduct a commendable defense line of the key transportation hubs at Xuan Loc and Phan Rang, but a loss of political and military will to continue the fight were becoming ever more manifest. Under political pressure, South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu resigned from office on 21 April, in hopes that a new leader that was more amenable to the North Vietnamese could reopen negotiations with them. It was, however, far too late. With PAVN spearheads already entering Saigon, the South Vietnamese government, then under the leadership of Duong Van Minh, capitulated on 30 April 1975.