April 28, 1975 – The bombing of Tan Son Nhut Air Base occurred on April 28, 1975, just two days before the Fall of Saigon. The bombing operation was carried out by the Vietnam People’s Air Force (VPAF) Quyet Thang Squadron, using captured Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) A-37 aircraft flown by VPAF pilots and RVNAF defectors led by Nguyen Thanh Trung who had bombed the Presidential Palace in Saigon, less than one month earlier. In 1973, by the time the Paris Peace Accord was concluded, South Vietnam possessed the fourth largest air force in the world. Despite their size, however, South Vietnamese Air Force operations were severely curtailed due to cutbacks in U.S. military aid. Furthermore, the South Vietnamese Air Force were prevented from undertaking reconnaissance and ground support missions due to the threat posed by formidable anti-aircraft weapons deployed by North Vietnam. When the North Vietnamese military renewed their offensive early in 1975, the South Vietnamese Air Force was virtually handicapped and many of their aircraft were either lost or captured as formations of the Vietnam People’s Army swept through the Central Highlands of South Vietnam. By April 1975, morale in the South Vietnamese Air Force had sunk so low that some of their personnel simply defected to the Communist side. In a well-known incident, South Vietnamese pilot Nguyen Thanh Trung used his F-5E fighter-bomber to attack the Presidential Palace in Saigon instead of North Vietnamese troops. Shortly afterwards, Trung joined the Communist forces and he was ordered to train a group of North Vietnamese pilots to operate the U.S.-made A-37 Dragonfly fighter-bomber, in order to support the Ho Chi Minh Campaign. On the afternoon of April 28, 1975, Trung led a flight of five A-37 fighter-bombers against Tan Son Nhut Air Base, which temporarily stopped U.S. and South Vietnamese evacuation efforts. Prior to the bombing of the Presidential Palace, North Vietnamese General Van Tien Dung and his field commanders had been discussing the possibility of deploying units of the Vietnam People’s Air Force (VPAF), to attack high-value South Vietnamese targets in support of North Vietnamese ground troops. Use of the Soviet MiG-17 fighter was considered, North Vietnamese pilots already had significant combat experience with the type. However, moving MiGs from their bases in North Vietnam was problematic; South Vietnamese defenses were falling much faster than anticipated, there was simply little time in which to deploy the MiGs in support of North Vietnamese units encircling Saigon. As the North Vietnamese had captured a large number of U.S.-made aircraft from the RVNAF at Pleiku and Da Nang Air Bases, so it was decided to use captured aircraft instead. The decision to use the captured aircraft presented a challenge for the VPAF, because they lacked experience in flying U.S.-made aircraft. Furthermore, VPAF pilots were not proficient in the English language, most had trained on Soviet equipment using the Russian language. Upon receiving news of Trung’s actions on April 8, General Dung decided that Trung would provide conversion training so that a group of North Vietnamese pilots would be able to fly the A-37 Dragonfly, the type selected for an upcoming operation. Trung was sent out to Da Nang Air Base where he was joined by Lieutenants Tran Van On and Tran Van Xanh, both former RVNAF fighter pilots, captured when Da Nang capitulated on March 29. Trung, Xanh and On were tasked with translating manuals from English to the Vietnamese language, as well as translating instructions on board the A-37 to Vietnamese. On April 19, the VPAF Command was ordered to prepare for an operation in South Vietnam, so a group of pilots from the 4th Squadron of the VPAF 923rd Fighter Regiment was selected to undertake conversion training in Da Nang and form a new squadron for the operation. The selected group was led by Upper Captain Nguyen Van Luc along with Tu De, Tran Cao Thang, Han Van Quang and Hoang Mai Vuong. Together with former RVNAF pilots Trung and On, the group would form the Quyet Thang (“Determined to Win”) Squadron. On April 22 the VPAF pilots arrived at Da Nang Air Base and they began training on two A-37 aircraft that were restored to flying condition with support from Trung, On, Xanh and a few captured South Vietnamese technicians. In just five days, the VPAF pilots were able to independently fly the A-37 without support from the former RVNAF pilots. As the VPAF pilots were completing the final phases of their conversion training, the VPAF Command chose to attack Tan Son Nhut Air Base in Saigon. On the afternoon of April 27, the pilots were flown out to Phu Cat Air Base in Binh Dinh Province where Major-General Le Van Tri, commander of the VPAF, briefed them on the upcoming operation. Tri also instructed the pilots to ensure that their bombs should not hit civilian areas in Saigon. From the original group of trainees, Luc, De, Quang, Vuong, Trung and On were selected to take part in the attack. Meanwhile, On and Xanh were also instructed to test-fly five captured A-37 bombers, which would be the mainstay of the Quyet Thang Squadron. On the morning of April 28, the Quyet Thang Squadron became operational with Luc as the squadron’s commander, when it was transferred to Thanh Son airfield in Ninh Thuan Province. At Thanh Son airfield, Luc submitted the squadron’s plan of attack to the VPAF Command, Trung would lead the formation in the first aircraft because he was familiar with the skies over Saigon, De would be positioned behind Trung in the second aircraft, followed by Luc in the third, Vuong and On together in the fourth and Quang would pilot the last aircraft in the formation. At around 16:05 on April 28, the five A-37 bombers of the Quyet Thang Squadron, each armed with four 250-pound bombs, took off from Thanh Son airfield and each aircraft flew between 600 meters (2,000 ft) and 800 meters (2,600 ft) apart from each other. To save fuel over the 400 kilometers (250 mi) distance between Thanh Son and Saigon, the five-aircraft formation had to fly at a height of just 1,000 meters (3,300 ft). Their first navigation point was Vung Tau, from where the formation would turn towards Tan Son Nhut. When the squadron flew over Bien Hoa Air Base, two RVNAF AD-6 Skyraiders were sighted conducting bombing sorties near the area, but they were not allowed to engage. Shortly after 17:00 the formation was able to approach Tan Son Nhut Air Base unchallenged as they were still wearing South Vietnamese code numbers. From about 2,000 meters (6,600 ft) above the target Trung dived down on the target, but the bombs could not be released from the pylons, so Trung was forced to pull his aircraft up again. Next in line was De, who was able to drop his entire bomb load on the target. Luc dived on the target, but he too experienced problems with the weapons release system, so only two bombs were dropped. After the last two aircraft piloted by Vuong, Quang and On had successfully hit their targets, they strafed aircraft on the ground with gunfire. Trung and Luc made another pass, but again their bombs could not be released from the pylon. By that stage the South Vietnamese had already responded by firing their anti-aircraft guns, so Luc ordered the squadron to withdraw as Trung made one final attempt at dropping his load using emergency mode. Several RVNAF F-5s were scrambled to pursue the attackers, but they escaped without any damage. On the return trip Quang led the formation, followed by Luc, De and Vuong and On. Trung, who had flown back for the third bombing attempt, was trailing the rest of the group. As they flew over Phan Thiet, they had to fly at a lower attitude to avoid mistakenly being hit by North Vietnamese anti-aircraft weapons. When the formation came within 40 kilometers (25 mi) of Thanh Son airfield, De was granted permission to land first because he only had about 600 liters (130 imp gal; 160 US gal) of fuel left. Squadron commander Luc was next to land, followed by Vuong and On, then Quang. Trung, who had led the attack during the mission, was the last aircraft to arrive back at base. By 18:00 on 28 April all the pilots of the VPAF Quyet Thang Squadron had landed at Thanh Son airfield, after completing North Vietnam’s first successful air attack against Saigon during the entire Vietnam War.